[Badass owndesignshirt] vintage coffee lover all over printed crocs


[Badass owndesignshirt] vintage coffee lover all over printed crocs

skills and knowledge mentioned above address the issue of inequality. Two aspects of this issue deserve attention. The first concerns structural factors which cause unequal access to labour markets. They are directly responsible for both unemployment and inadequate employment, and demand continued attention. Second, much poverty can be simply traced to inadequate employment, and employment creation programmes therefore continue to play an important role in combating it. Neither of these areas of work is new, but both need to be continued to provide an important complement to the broader macroeconomic and production system issues outlined above. In the past the ILO has been extensively involved in many aspects of training. The Organization’s technical advisory services, including those of the Turin Centre, have been in heavy demand, particularly on training system reform and policies for displaced workers. However, apart from management training, there has been less activity at the enterprise level. Moreover, until recently training activity was undertaken separately from other work on labour market and human resource policies. It is striking that lifelong learning and skill development are now widely regarded as the lynchpin of strategies to promote employment — striking, because it is also clear that attempts to generate employment through training programmes have often failed. What these experiences have demonstrated is that integrated strategies for employment promotion are needed that simultaneously build human capabilities and create opportunities to use those skills. Operating on the supply or the demand side alone is not enough. In these changing production systems small firms are playing an increasingly important role as links in the chain of suppliers, as part of the local network of producers or, less positively, as lower productivity alternatives for those who fail to gain access to formal sector employment. Though large corporations have a major influence on job creation, in fact most new employment is created in small enterprises. These may involve anything from a single self-employed person in the informal sector to complex production units employing dozens of wage workers. Plenty of these jobs provide secure incomes and a decent working environment. But there are many poor jobs as well, low in productivity, dangerous or lacking in basic social protection. Women are particularly over-represented in such categories. The heterogeneity of this sector epitomizes its policy challenge. These developments are crucial for employment policy. Decent jobs will be created when firms and workers are able to adapt and acquire new capabilities so as to take advantage of new opportunities. Employment policies must anticipate technological and institutional change, so that workers are equipped to move into new jobs and enterprises have the skills and incentives to create them. Persistent unemployment may reflect either a

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